Other Autos

What Kind of Engines Do They Put in New Morgan Cars?

Those outside of the UK might have a hard time understanding what makes the Morgan Motor Company so special, but even those who didn’t grow up with this storied badge would be hard-pressed to feel nothing upon seeing a modern Morgan. One glance at its lines tells you all you need to know about the emotion, tradition and craftsmanship that went into building it.

What Is the Stroke on a Stock Chevy 400?

The 400 small block Chevy engine is one of those powerplants that proves that even the best ideas have limits. The 400 developed something of a bad reputation among performance enthusiasts of the time, owing to its tendency to overheat when built wrong. But when built well, these engines have just as much of a reputation for huge torque — owing largely to one of the most swapped crankshafts in history.

Volkswagen has never been shy about experimenting with oddball engine designs. When everyone else was installing water-cooled, inline-fours under the hood, VW put an air-cooled flat-four in the trunk. When everyone else was building V-6 engines, VW was building a weird hybrid of an inline-six and V-6; and that engine would ultimately evolve into one of the greatest — and weirdest — production powerplants the world has ever known.

Introduced in 1988, the Yamaha Blaster is kind of the 5.0 Mustang of ATVs. Small, cheap, fairly powerful, light, simple and easily modified, the Blaster has become a darling among those looking for a good time without the pomp and pretense of more costly machines.

Honda’s trademark compact has made a career out of defying expectations. Back in the 1970s, the Civic’s CVCC predecessor defied American expectations about fuel economy, quality and reliability, compared to contemporary American compacts. Later, the Civic Si came to embarrass quite a few sports-car owners who expected an easy victory against Honda’s cheap little runabout.

The Import vs. Muscle debate has been raging almost since there were import cars, and before there were muscle cars. The Chevy Impala and Honda Civic were once worlds apart, as different as two cars could possibly be; now, though, with full-sized cars shrinking and compacts like the Civics growing, comparing the two isn’t quite such an apples-and-oranges affair.

But much as you’d expect, which one would win a race depends largely on the race itself.

Every motorsport, and every type of car, has its golden era. For muscle cars, it was the 1960s; for motocross, it was the 1990s. Formula One has had its share of poignant moments, for sure, but the 1988 season has to be near the top of anyone’s list.

This was the end of an era, one defined by epic battles, legendary drivers like Ayerton Senna, and the turbocharged, Honda-powered monsters he drove.

It is said that the first race happened when the first two cars parked next to each other on the first street. In the modern era, we’re still bench-racing everything with wheels — especially if they happen to come from opposite sides of the ocean. Mercury’s Cougar was meant to take down cars just like the Accord.

Did it succeed?

One of the best things about the musclecar era was the sheer variety of incredible speed machines available. Today, we certainly do have our fair share of hugely impressive automobiles; but back in 1969, you almost couldn’t sell a car if it didn’t at least have a high-powered halo version available. You won’t find many 350 H.O.

Pontiac Le Mans anywhere now, for pretty good reason.

In its earliest iterations, the Accord was basically just a four-door, extended-wheelbase version of the Civic. But that just a stretched Civic was just right for America, because by 1989, the Accord would become the first import vehicle to become a best-seller in the United States. From then until the ninth — 2007-to-2012 — generation, the Accord had undergone a series of evolutions that brought cutting-edge sophistication to everyman’s driveway.

Most of those innovations served to make the car even better than it was before, but a few might have caused a couple minor issues.

They might not have quite the cachet of a Chevelle or Mustang, but the Mazda 323’s many names have seen more roads in more countries than many others in the world. Sold in different markets as the Familia, Mazda 3, Mercury Tracer, Ford Laser and Escort, and even as the Kia Sephia, the Mazda 323 was a world car if ever there was one.

The import vs. muscle debate might have heated up in the 1980s and 1990s, but in one form or another, it goes back pretty much to the first imports sold in the United States. Back in the 1950s and 1960s, the Volkswagen Beetle was the hot sport compact, with small groups of modified cars getting more than a little jump on heavier and more powerful musclecars. In the 21st century, the Honda Civic Si and Impala SS have competed just as fiercely in the speed department as they have on showroom floors.

Put yourself in Scottish inventor James Watt’s position for a moment. You’ve just invented a steam engine, and you’re trying to make a financial case for it to people who have never known anything but hoof-drawn labor. You know your steam engine could eventually replace every horse on the planet, but how many could this expensive bit of machinery replace on one farm?

That’s how the concept of horsepower was born; while the means of figuring it have changed, Watt’s horse-replacement measurement is still the standard we use today.

The newer Duramax might get all the props from the enthusiast aftermarket, but there’s no denying that the old 6.5-liter Detroit Diesel V-8 has its charms. The Detroit hails from a time when the best thing that a diesel could be was simple, reliable and relatively cheap; massive horsepower potential was a secondary consideration, at best.

Rebadging. To brand enthusiasts, this might be the dirtiest of words. The practice of simply rebranding mechanically identical vehicles really took off in the 1980s, when manufacturers like GM largely eliminated badge-specific powertrains and began using corporate engines across the board.

Did GM’s excitement division manage to hold out against the onslaught of corporate uniformity? At various points, yes and no.

It has been said that every time man discovers a jewel, the Devil takes it for war. And that is true, but so sometimes is the opposite. Just prior to WWII, soon-to-be Allied powers found themselves with need for heavy bombers, but without strategic airfields long enough to land them.

The innovation that made those strategic bombers practical for use in war has gone through many stages of evolution since then, and it’s still saving lives on the ground today.

The 2013 golf cart from Yamaha — the YDRE for the 48-volt electric drive or the YDRA for the four-stroke gas drive — is equipped with an internal wet brake. Using oil other than what Yamaha recommends for the transaxle will cause brake noise.

The 2006 QuadSport LTZ400 all-terrain vehicle — the snazzy red and black version of the Z400 — features a high-performance engine and fully adjustable suspension. With only 50 cc less than the LTR450, Suzuki’s LTZ400 was a more affordable option for riders looking for serious off-road leisure and light competition riding.

Despite widespread confusion about the term, the crossover really is a very distinct type of automobile, with a distinct point of origin. Back in 1979, both Jeep and AMC were under the Chrysler corporate umbrella, and there was a great deal of engineering crossover between the two. Jeep got AMC’s inline-six engine, and Jeep chief engineer Roy Lunn made the decision to install an all-wheel-drive system and a suspension lift into an AMC Concorde station wagon; the resulting AMC Eagle continues to define the crossover as we know it today. In fact, you could say that by this historical definition,

To most, the F-350 seems like the least-likely vehicle in the world to wind up in a discussion about fuel economy. At some point, the numbers get so low, and the differences so minor, that it’s easy to just write off fuel consumption as awful. Those who regularly do use these trucks for their intended purpose, though, know that it’s the truck’s very thirsty nature that makes every mpg that much more important.

On paper, a sword isn’t anything special — it’s just a big knife — a metal stick with a sharpened edge. You have to see a sword to get a whisper of its meaning, hold one to understand its purpose, and master the blade to know its soul. On paper, early 1980s Corollas aren’t anything special either; it takes a refined hand and a mastery of the art of driving to understand what makes the Hachi Roku as special as it is.

Here’s a pretty ridiculous question — at least, it certainly was about a decade ago. Back in 2003, Ford’s Taurus was rental-car quick at about 16 seconds flat in the quarter, and the STi was a 13-second rocket ship. But that was when Ford was content to limp along in anonymity, and Subaru was at the top of its game.

Fast-forward 10 years, and this race suddenly gets a great deal closer.

Cadillac has a history of daring engine choices: historic V-16s, massive 500-cubic-inch V-8 engines, and even an engine that featured cylinder deactivation 20 years before anyone else used it. Of course, nobody used the V-8-6-4’s kind of cylinder deactivation for 20 years primarily because it didn’t exactly work in 1981. What did work, though, was the revolutionary powerplant that Caddy introduced in 1991.

It has been said that a culture defines what is important to it by the history that it’s made. United States history is filled with stories of the rugged wilderness — of history made in the outlands of civilization. In Europe, history’s generally been made in cities and national capitals.

While Americans may generally idolize modern covered wagons — SUVs — as a means of transport through the perceived wilderness, smart and sophisticated little station wagons like the A3 bring a bit of European practicality to the real world of long highways and urban jungles.

Compact hatchbacks have been around in America about as long as they have Europe, but it took a little while for the craze to catch up here. When Europe was discovering the joys of spirited and efficient little cars, America was in the midst of a horsepower war. Now, though, small cars like the Focus have come into their own, thanks largely to a broad selection of powertrains and fuel sources, designed to suit the needs of any driver.

The Escort was a tough act to follow, especially in Europe. Quick compacts and hatches have maintained something of a cult following in America for a while now, but overseas hot hatches — starting with the VW Golf GTI — dropped like a bomb that never stopped exploding. Ford was on the right track with the first-generation Focus RS and SVT, but lost a lot of fans when the second-generation car debuted without either performance badge.

In their place was the Focus ZX4 ST, a decent little compact with some heavy history to bear.

Some fights are all about explosions, shock and awe; others are more about attrition, evolution and outsmarting the enemy. Toyota’s Camry held its crown for many years as America’s top-selling family car, but Honda spent just as long breathing down Toyota’s neck with equal parts quality, performance and styling. With the Toyota and Honda both getting clean-sheet redesigns in 2006 and 2007 respectively, the Accord vs.

Camry battle was on fire once again, and closer than ever before.

Call it The Curse of the Cimmaron — it exists in the history of every manufacturer, not just GM. This curse is what happens when a single car — a terrible, embarrassing, vile abortion of all things good and pure in a marque — destroys every other car it’s related to simply under the weight of its own awfulness. Was the Cavalier a bad car?

Absolutely not; neither were the Pontiac Sunbird, Buick Skyhawk or Oldsmobile Firenza. But they did have the bad luck of being related to the Cimarron in the 1980s, and that was enough to sign the

Retro is the future. That’s been the operating principle at Chrysler for more than a decade now, and it’s proven a successful marketing strategy for cars like the 300C, Charger and PT Cruiser. But, that’s all it usually is: a marketing strategy.

In this day and age of jacked-up Camrys and minivans, minivans in Halloween costumes and rebadged, round-headlight crossovers, very few revived classics can truly claim to descend in an unbroken line from greatness. The Wrangler Unlimited might seem like just another four-door, also-ran SUV to the uninitiated, but tracing its family tree paints an entirely different picture of

Not everybody gets Lexus, particularly performance enthusiasts. Just ask Jeremy Clarkson of the BBC’s Top Gear, who bestowed upon the SC430 the title of The Worst Car in the History of the World. The reason?

It’s a car driven exclusively by Masons, and as exciting as sitting in a bucket of warm wallpaper paste. Of course, that might have just been a bit of typical counter-culturalism, since in 2004 and 2005 JD Power voted the car in first place in initial quality, and Kelley Blue Book rated it No. 1 for value holding. In 2005, the SC underwent an overhaul

By the late-1990, the Honda Civic was well-established as a perennial best seller for its enviable combination of economy, fit and finish, and reliability. For the 1998 model year – which arrived in the middle of the car’s sixth production cycle – manufacturer Honda positioned the DX as the low-end trim of the Civic.

The Craftsman 12.5 mower is as versatile as riding mowers get; powerful enough for the heavy stuff, but not too big or heavy for everyday lawn work. This mower’s front axle is a fairly simple affair, by automotive standards — and at least average by mower standards. Replacement is straightforward, as is removal and replacement of the axle stubs — spindles — that hold the wheels on either side.

The Craftsman name has long been associated with indestructible tools, and, true to the name, Craftsman mowers have historically been known as some of the more reliable out there. The Craftsman II mower lives up to its heritage as well as any other produced by the company, but even these titans of the greenway require some maintenance from time to time. Rear axle-shaft replacement isn’t easy, by mower standards; but, it’s no more difficult than the average automotive wheel bearing replacement.

So, it’s still well suited for DIY replacement.

There are two basic kinds of ATV; the miniature 4WD trucks, used to cart hunters around through the woods, and race-bred, high-flying, 2WD beasts like the Polaris Predator. The Predator specializes in going anywhere, and getting there as quickly as possible — and sometimes, that means going places where the air is as dirty as the fuel. And that means periodic carburetor cleaning.

Fortunately, Polaris made servicing the stock Mikuni carburetor pretty simple; in fact, getting it out may be the only remotely difficult part of the job.

They may look look dainty little bits of fun sitting on the flightline, but those swirls on the front of a jet engine’s nose cone serve a serious purpose. At least one popular and interesting myth has grown up around these painted swirls, but the truth of their purpose is quite a bit more straightforward.

Ford equipped the 1969 3000 series tractor with an element-type oil filter contained within a two-quart oil filter canister. A spin-on filter conversion kit available for the tractor eliminated the canister in favor of the more modern and convenient spin-on filter. Both filters remove carbon particles, metal salt and other harmful solids from the oil supply to protect the engine bearings from harm.

Perform oil filter changes after every 300 hours of operation.

Yamaha is well-known for manufacturing musical instruments, motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles. The company also produces golf carts seen on courses and retirement communities around the globe. Some owners may use their Yamaha carts more for transportation than for golfing.

In these cases, a having a rear passenger seat may be beneficial. A flip-flop seat — which folds out of the way to make room for golf bags when not in use — can be installed on your Yamaha cart to add extra seating capacity when needed.

Funny cars and Top Fuel dragsters are professional drag race cars and have their own racing category. Funny cars feature carbon-fiber bodies over a conventional chassis and resemble production cars. Top Fuel dragsters generally have the same horsepower as Funny cars, but are faster because they are lighter with narrow bodies.

Funny cars and Top Fuel dragsters are straight-line quarter-mile racers.

Both the NX650 — the Dominator — and the XR650L are dual-sport products of the Honda Motor Company. Although production of the Dominator ceased with model year 2010, as of February 2012 the XR650L is still a current model. Both machines combine good fuel economy with reliable road performance and competent off-road performance.

Chrysler’s power steering and manual steering units have distinct mechanisms to turn the vehicle. Chrysler was the first automaker to offer power steering in 1951 as optional equipment. Chrysler touted its power steering to perform 80 percent of the work in steering and use 40 percent less turns of the wheel.

The concept remains today, although manual steering is an acceptable alternative in smaller, older models, primarily because the steering box weighs less and translates to more power.

Yamaha golf carts that are used on public roadways require exterior lights to be street-legal, including headlights, taillights and brake lights. Yamaha manufactures many of their golf carts with no lighting, but light kits are available. Since golf carts do not offer the same level of safety as a full-sized automobile, properly working brake lights on your Yamaha golf cart are a must.

Replacing the brake light bulb or the entire taillight assembly may be necessary to get your cart road-worthy again.

The use of leaf springs as suspension dates to the horse-and-buggy period in which carriages employed leaf springs as damping material to cushion rides over hard, rough roads and trails. Virtually all early automobiles used leaf springs, which were common in passenger cars and trucks until the 1970s. Leaf springs in contemporary vehicles are most often used in pickup trucks, commercial trucks and other heavy-duty vehicles to better spread the weight distribution of cargo.

The 1968 Chrysler 300 was a behemoth of a car that required a hefty engine and a big carburetor to deliver the fuel to the powerplant. The carb came in the form of a four-barrel Holley R-3918A and generally matched with the Chrysler 440-cubic-inch V-8 engine. The Holley carb also matched with the 383 V-8 and helped power the equally massive Chrysler Imperial.

The 2002 Chevrolet Camaro B4C was the police vehicle version of the standard Camaro model. Chevy identified the police version as the B4C Special Equipment Option, or Special Service police package. The Camaro B4C was essentially the Z28 Chevy factory package with some additional heavy-duty options.

Chevrolet produced the Camaro B4C from 1991 to 2002. The Camaro went on hiatus until Chevy revived it in 2009.

General Motors was a leader in wheel and hubcap design for more than 50 years, thanks largely to the automaker’s influential Art and Colour Section headed by chief designer Harley Earl. Through the 1950s, Earl’s department dictated GM’s path, focusing on styling rather than advances in engine, drivetrain and suspension technology. GM’s Cadillac and LaSalle, taking styling cues from luxury independents like Duesenberg and Auburn, set the standard for wheel styling of mass-produced cars.

Race car suspension and conventional production cars are equipped with vastly different suspension systems. However, both operate on the same principle that considers drag, handling and the responsiveness of the vehicle’s chassis to the tires and the suspension system’s relationship with the chassis. Ultimately, high priority is placed on a race car’s aerodynamics, safety and weight.

Mass-produced cars receive the same considerations, but don’t necessarily require the same technology.

Air conditioning systems seem complex at first glance — and they are. But the principles upon which they work are actually very simple, and the parts they use make sense once you understand how the system works. The blower motor is the last link in your AC system’s chain, responsible for transporting air through the evaporator core and into your car.

Sometimes called illuminated entry systems, perimeter lights are the lights that welcome you into the interior of your car. If you unlock your car with a key, there’s no sound, and neither headlights nor tail lights flash. If you use your keyless entry system, the horn gives a short beep, the headlights and back-up lights flash, and the interior lights reward you with sufficient light to ensure the interior is safe to enter.

There are a lot of myths out there on Planet Car, many of which are based on either outdated facts or assumptions built around incomplete data. The question of rpm-related transmission damage is an interesting one, since it does happen — just not in the way you might think.

Your engine is kind of like a little planet, or an organism — a biosphere that must maintain numerous delicate balances just to survive. Your engine uses air and fuel just like your body does, oxidizing the fuel to produce usable energy. But air is a difficult thing to control; it changes in density by atmospheric pressure and heat, and it speeds up or slows down according to the shape of the channels it flows through. The idle air control valve is one mechanism that your engine uses to modulate this difficult substance in order to maintain that tenuous balance

Steam engines have been in existence since the late 17th century, but it was not power source for farming implements until the late 19th century. It predated the gasoline engine and more or less served as a template for mechanized farming, but steam engines were complicated and too large for practical daily use.

The Honda Black Max power-riding mower has a spotty presence in North America, although it can be found at some discount warehouse outlets. Only one model was available in 2012: the Black Max riding mower with a 46-inch cutting blade. The Black Max is not a full Honda riding mower, but assembled by Husqvarna Outdoor Products and powered with a Honda engine.

The Toyota-produced Lexus ES300 luxury car and the upscale Toyota Avalon shared a five-speed automatic transmission through most of the ES300’s 1992 to 2003 lifespan. However, the ES300 also used a four-speed automatic not found on the Avalon. The Avalon benefited from a six-speed version after Lexus phased out the ES300 to bring in the ES330 model.

Toyota designed all automatic transmissions in the Lexus ES300 and Avalon to match the output demands of the 3.5-liter V-6.

Two- and four-wheel drive automatic and manual transmissions are almost identical in just about every way. They feature the same housing, gear ratios and often – but not always – have the same spline count on the output shaft. Primary differences are the two-wheel transmission output shaft is longer than the four-wheel version and four-wheel transmissions mate to a transfer case.

Some automakers build their two-wheel transmissions so they can be converted to four-wheel models.

The Honda Civic is a ubiquitous entry-level compact car that is sold in most markets around the world. The DX-G trim level was offered exclusively in the Canadian market during the vehicle’s eighth generation, lasting from the 2006 to 2011 model years. The Civic has been offered in EX guise over many generations, but during the eighth generation it was positioned above the DX-G model. Both models were powered by the same 1.8-liter four-cylinder engine and offered in a choice of five-speed automatic of manual transmission, but the difference between the DX-G and EX came down to the creature comforts

The throttle override system used on Yamaha’s all-terrain vehicles isn’t specific to Yamaha; some variant of the system has found its way onto ATVs produced by almost every major manufacturer. While the TORS works admirably when new, years of dirt, mud and hard landings can turn the system into more of a liability than a safety feature.

In many ways, Austrian manufacturer Rotax’s signature two-stroke engines are just like any other two-stroke out there; they work in the same basic way, have all the same basic parts and do all the same things. But Rotax engines have long been known for their enormous power output relative to weight and displacement. Like most things Austrian and German, the secret is all in its engineering and attention to detail.

The Toyota 22RE and 22REC four-cylinder engines produced from 1982 through 1995 were almost identical. The difference between the two engines is that the 22REC complied with California emissions equipment standards that consist mainly of additional vacuum hoses and valves to regulate emissions. Horsepower and torque remained the same between the two engines.

Modifying engines to increase acceleration is a common topic among auto hobbyists; however, many common methods often involve laborious and expensive engine modifications. Instead of making major — and time-consuming — changes to the motor, fine-tuning engine timing is a simple and inexpensive method of increasing acceleration. Racer Walsh, a manufacturer of aftermarket street and race-car parts, produces variable, adjustment camshaft gears for a variety of engines capable of making minute changes in engine timing.

According the the Department of Energy, the average reported — or real-world — fuel economy rating for the 2007 Yaris spread over a stunning 26 mpg; from 23 mpg all the way up to 52 mpg, with an average of about 39 mpg. This reality of economy-car ownership sheds a whole new light on those neat 29 city and 36 highway numbers posted on the car’s window. The reasons for this massive gap are manifold, and probably have as much to do with you and your driving conditions as with the car itself.

In an internal combustion engine, the valves are responsible for feeding the piston chamber with air and fuel, as well as releasing exhaust gases from the chamber after combustion. As such, the valve layout is paramount in deciding the performance aspects of an engine, including power output, fuel efficiency and reliability. Unlike nearly all modern automobile engines, which incorporate valves into the cylinder head, L-head engines utilize side valves connected directly into the cylinder. While this allows for a simple and reliable setup, the relatively low power and efficiency achieved by L-head engines forced automobile manufacturers to engineer overhead valve

It’s a long way from making a bathtub out of a hog trough to being one of America’s largest privately held companies, but that’s the path John Michael Kohler set out upon when he got inspired about what to do with the trough in 1883. The Kohler company would hold on to its founder’s inventiveness for the next century and more as it became a leading manufacturer of not only plumbing fixtures but small engines as well.

Positive crankcase ventilation systems are fairly humble in terms of sophistication, but they perform a number of important functions in terms of engine dynamics and emissions. An evolution of the simple vent tubes in use from the dawn of the internal combustion engine, the modern and federally mandated PCV system remains a wonderfully simple solution to a multifaceted problem.

Volvo Penta engines can trace their lineage back to the beginning of the 20th century, when a Swedish engineer designed an engine to be used in his company’s foundry. By the middle of the century, automaker Volvo had acquired the engine manufacturer and was looking for ways to bring unprecedented power to its cars. Thus, the Volvo Penta V-8 was born.

Installing a roll cage in a Camaro can be done by using a bolt-in system, which is a type of roll cage that does not require welding for the installation. The main part for your bolt-in roll cage is the cage hoop. This is the top bar of the cage.

Installing a bolt-in cage for a third-generation Camaro will require a roll cage for your specific model of vehicle.

The Honda Civic Si is a performance sport compact car commonly called a “hot hatch” because of its hatchback styling. “Si” denotes “sport injected” or “sequential injection.” The Honda Civic Si competes against the Volkswagen Golf among other compact cars in hot-hatch performance. The Civic Si debuted in 1986 and is still being produced as of the 2012 model year.

CO2 dragsters are miniature vehicles powered by liquid CO2 and raced on a track. The hobby traces its roots to the larger prewar soap box derby racing that used gravity to propel the cars and the early postwar period of using CO2 to power miniatures. The hobby is popular among young boys and taught in schools to encourage interest in science and technology.

Anyone who owns a boat or a jet-ski, participates in automotive competitions like motocross or drag racing, or even runs a business that depends on the transport of lumber or other heavy equipment, will probably require the use of a tow trailer. With a wide variety of necessities inherent to such ownership and the specific needs of the cargo that is being transported, building a tow trailer offers a cost-effective alternative to purchasing a professional-built model.

Getting an engine to run, much less run well, is no simple task. While any high-school auto-shop student may tell you how air and fuel gets into the cylinder, ignites and gets back out, the fact is that the techniques used today are the products of more than a century’s worth of trial, error and refinement. Valvetrains and ignition systems are getting more complex by the day, edging ever closer to perfectly orchestrating the dance of physics that is an internal combustion engine.

You could make the argument that Honda’s seminal variable valve timing electronic control system created the modern high-performance engine. Very few automotive innovations before or after VTEC’s introduction in 1983 have been copied by so many manufacturers. In fact, you’d be hard-pressed to find a major manufacturer that doesn’t equip at least one engine with some variant of the system.

True, VTEC has had its ups and downs, but the idea has become, and likely will remain, a feature on modern engines for many years to come.

As automobiles replaced horse-drawn buggies in the late 19th century, states began to regulate and classify motor vehicles via license plates. The first American license plate was introduced by Massachusetts in 1903, and the practice quickly spread to states across the country, with each state forming local departments to oversee motor vehicle registration and issuing license plates made of copper, iron and even porcelain. Not long after their introduction, these tags began to separate passenger vehicles from official vehicles via occupational plates.

Laser spark plugs for internal combustion engines focus a laser beam inside the cylinder wall to create a mini explosion to push the piston down to run the engine. The laser beam creates a more symmetrical expansion than the conventional spark plug to ignite the explosion. The laser plug’s ignition is three times faster than the standard spark plug.

The laser version could increase fuel efficiency and significantly reduce greenhouse emissions.

A common complaint about power-assist steering systems in vehicles is that the system provides so much steering assist at higher speeds that the driver cannot feel the road, contributing to an out-of-control feeling. Manual steering systems may require too much effort for drivers with less arm strength when executing parking lot and slow-speed maneuvers. Speed-sensing steering is a way to compromise in these areas and offer better vehicle handling and performance at all speeds.

Two-stage turbocharging is the latest development in forced induction. Forced induction refers to the process of using a mechanical device to force more air and fuel into an engine’s cylinders. This process is known as “boost,” and it has the effect of making the engine think it is bigger than it really is. The extra air and fuel result in more power output from the engine.

This is accomplished by way of either a supercharger or turbocharger.

Turbochargers are the ultimate way to squeeze the maximum amount of horsepower possible out of an internal combustion engine. However, to run efficiently, turbochargers require an entire system of piping and sensors in order to monitor and circulate the pressurized air as it is fed into the throttle body. An important part of most turbo systems is the intercooler, which is designed to cool down the turbocharged air before it enters the engine.

The necessity of an intercooler system is due to the extreme level of heat generated by a turbocharger setup.

In the 1930s, the automotive industry was starting to transform from an industry full of smaller start-up companies to one where only large corporations could thrive. Most importantly, the Big Three in Detroit had done what so many of their competitors had not been able to — survive the earliest days of automotive competition into the 1930s. Other companies also existed during the decade, but it certainly marked the continuing domination of Ford, General Motors and Chrysler in the motor city.

Chevrolet produced two distinct versions of the 4.3-liter engine: the groundbreaking small-block carbureted V-8 and the fuel-injected V-6. The V-8 displaced 265 cubic inches and was commonly called the 265. It was the first in a long line of small-block V-8 engines.

The 4.3-liter V-6 was derived from the small-block V-8. The V-6 had the same basic architecture as the 265 and 350 V-8 engines, but with two cylinders shaved off the engine.

The Ford Motor Company’s 5.4-liter, or 330-cubic-inch, V-8 engine debuted in 1997 featuring two valves per cylinder for its truck line. The automaker launched second version for its truck line with four valves per cylinder in 1999. A third version of the 5.4-liter V-8 with three valves per cylinder arrived in 2002, first for passenger cars and later trucks, performance vehicles and the Lincoln Navigator.

These engines were Ford’s first V-8s displacing 5.4 liters.

Oxygen sensors, like anti-lock brakes and radial tires, are one of those little automotive inventions that went from nonexistent to ubiquitous practically overnight. The O2 sensor is your engine management system’s nose and allows your computer to extrapolate the exhaust gas’ oxygen content by taking its temperature.

The Choremaster was an odd duck single-wheel light-duty tractor that garnered some popularity in the Midwestern market in the late 1940s and early 1950s, but it faded from use by the 1960s. A 1 1/2-horsepower Clinton or Briggs Stratton engine powered the Choremaster. The company offered limited models, including snowplows, but its garden tractor was its primary product.

The Massey Ferguson 1533 and 1433 farm and agricultural tractors share many characteristics. Farmers use both machines for the same jobs. Similarities included the 1533 and 1433 sharing Japanese-manufactured three-cylinder Iseki diesel engine with similar output ranges.

But the 1533 version is a slightly larger, more robust version of the 1433 with greater fuel capacity, while the 1433 had more versatile transmission options.

The history of the Ford Festiva, a subcompact car for the fuel-sipping, economically conscious market, spans over 15 years. Although the car’s time in North America was brief, lasting only from 1988 to 1993, the Festiva left its mark on many corners of the world. Enthusiasts remember the Festiva as an efficient auto; in fact, the Environmental Protection Agency placed the 1988 Ford Festiva at No.

25 on a 2011 list of the most fuel-efficient cars since released 1984.

Two types of turbochargers power automobile engines and industrial-type power plants. The most common turbo engine is the radial, or centrifugal, turbocharger with air force-fed through a pump to create dynamic pressure to create high speed. An axial-flow turbocharger is equipped with impellers fastened to a shaft that help force the air in an axial direction through a pipe.

Radial turbochargers employ a much older technology than the axial flow.

The advantage of a 4X4, or four-wheel drive, over all-wheel drive is that drivers can operate a 4X4 in rough terrain. All-wheel drive vehicles are for paved roads and don’t respond well to off-road conditions. Truck, car or sport-utility vehicle buyers should consider the different types of four- and all-wheel-drive models and determine which vehicle suits their needs.

There are full- and part-time 4X4s, and full-time and automatic, or “on-demand,” AWDs.

The Yamaha 426 is a dirt bike that allows riders to perform stunts by riding on dirt hills. Occasionally, the parts of the bike’s motor will become damaged and require rebuilding. The main aspect of rebuilding a Yamaha 426 motor, just like any other motor, is to replace the parts that are certain to become damaged over time.

With the right repair kits and parts, you can do so easily.

Since its foundation by a blacksmith 1837, the John Deere company has manufactured a wide range of agricultural implements, from tractors and riding mowers to tillers and backhoes. In 2006, the company offered the 9780i CTS, a harvesting combine for cutting, threshing and cleaning. When it comes to specs, the CTS was the top-of-the-line combine when compared to the similar 9540i, 9560i, 9580i, 9640i, 9660i and 9680i WTS combines of the time.

When moving a trailer, a tractor designed to do so is needed. There are several ports on the back of a tractor that allow for the connection of hydraulic hoses from the trailer. This makes moving much easier, since the trailer can perform hydraulic functions even though it is connected to the tractor.

You can easily connect the trailer to the tractor in this fashion, but you must first secure the two vehicles together through the use of a ball pin.

The notification and alert systems for certain Python vehicle remote control fobs, and security and remote control fobs, provide vibrate alert options in addition to tone alert options. Typically, you set the fob to vibrate by toggling command buttons on the fob or accessing command functions via display menus. Whatever model of vibration-capable Python fob you have, the key to getting your fob to vibrate is to determine which type of design Python used for accessing the vibrate options.

Ford 3600 tractors use a ring-and-pinion gear in the rear differential to transfer the rotation and torque of the engine to the rear tires through the axles. The rear differential is lubricated with Ford Transmission and Final Drive Lubricant, part number M2C53A. Because of the high shear forces involved, check the fluid periodically for wear and viscosity breakdown to properly protect the gears.

Check the fluid through the rear differential plug using common tools.

The Simplicity 7117 lawn tractor was part of the 7100 series of lawn and garden equipment manufactured from 1979 to about 1989. Simplicity Manufacturing produced the vehicles to till and plow soil, and for lawn mowing, grading and towing. Simplicity 7117 models featured a 17-horsepoer Kohler engine, while other models in the 7100 series had either Kohler or Briggs Stratton engines.

The L48 350-cubic-inch V-8 engine was a base power plant produced from 1967 to 1980. The L82 350 was a performance version of the base 350 and manufactured between 1973 and 1980. Both engines powered the Chevrolet Corvette and Camaro. The L48 was standard equipment on the Corvette from 1975 to 1980. The L82 was an option on the Corvette until 1980.

Output varied as federal emissions controls became stricter in the mid and late 1970s.

Converting an old 2-wheel drive truck to a 4-wheel tow behind is done by removing the driveshaft and installing a tow bar. Removing the driveshaft from the truck will allow the rear wheels to spin freely. The tow bar is used to allow you to attach the truck to the receiver hitch of the tow vehicle.

You can do this by first obtaining a donor truck to use for the project.

While some might believe that the Mercury Villager was a cousin to parent company Ford’s Windstar, it was actually developed as a joint venture between Ford/Mercury and Nissan. Badged as either the Nissan Quest or Mercury Villager, this minivan benefited from Mercury’s experience with large passenger vehicles and Nissan’s advanced powertrain engineering. The second generation Villager’s knock sensor was more than just a safeguard against detonation; it formed a vital link in the Ford/Nissan’s fuel management strategy.

Multi-point fuel injection is quite a bit older than you may think and actually predates the internal combustion engine itself. The concept goes all the way back to the ICE’s prehistoric ancestor, the steam engine, where it performed much the same task as it does today. In fact, you could almost look at central carburetion or injection as something of a long-lived middle child in automotive history — one neither completely gone nor forgotten, but still ultimately overshadowed by its elders.

Nissan’s premium division, Infiniti, utilizes its G-class of vehicles as its bread and butter line of entry-level executive class vehicles that compete against the likes of the Mercedes C-Class and the BMW 3-Series. The V36 chassis debuted for 2007 and ushered in the fourth generation of the Japanese automaker’s executive vehicle class. The 2011 model year G37’s were of the same generation as the 2008 model year G37’s, but the options became more plentiful in the time between models.

Piston development is an interesting sort of thing in engine history, primarily because it’s less a history of development than it is of utilization. Most piston materials, production methods and dimensions in use today have been around for over a century, but the evolution of the engine around the piston has changed what materials we use and how we use them.

Purchased by The Toro Company from American Motors Corporation in 1986, Wheel Horse brand tractors are known for having a simple and reliable design. Engineered for longevity and low maintenance, Wheel Horse tractor transmissions are a manually operated single-ratio gear-box system that changes the speed, torque and directional output of the engine. Rebuilding a Toro Wheel Horse transmission is a straightforward procedure easily accomplished by most weekend mechanics in a single afternoon.

The differences between equipping a car with steel wheels or alloy wheels for the average vehicle owner are minimal. Alloy wheels are lighter and sportier while steel wheels are heavier but sturdier. While some alloy wheels are lighter than steel rims by as much as 10 pounds, most tip the scales at about 3 pounds lighter, making road performance differences almost negligible to an owner of a minivan or mid-size sedan.

BMW has long been leading the way in integrating technology into motor cars, and uses a strict trickle-down philosophy to ensure that the top-level tech of today eventually makes its way to even the lowest car in the lineup. The X5 luxury crossover’s Telematics Control Unit is one such example, integrating a number of communications and information systems into a single computer that allows access to everything the system has to offer.

An EFI 16-valve DOHC is a four-cylinder engine with four valves per cylinder, dual overhead cam and electronic fuel injection. Most engines with these features have a displacement of 2.4 liters or less. The engine is the smallest for most European, Japanese and North American cars. Compact trucks are often equipped with such engines. The 16-valve four-cylinder engines derived from earlier 8- and 12-valve four-cylinder engines.

Ford, Mazda and Nissan produce some of the more common four-cylinders.

American Classic Motors Road
American Classic Motors Road

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