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Phil Popham (Jaguar Land Rover Group Marketing Director)
”’Jaguar Cars”’ ( ) is a brand of Jaguar Land Rover + . a British
Jaguar was founded as the Swallow Sidecar Company + in 1922, originally making motorcycle sidecar + s before developing passenger cars. The name was changed to Jaguar after World War II to avoid the unfavourable connotations of the SS initials + . Sale to The British Motor Corporation followed in 1966, the resulting enlarged company now being renamed as British Motor Holdings (BMH) + . which in 1968 merged with Leyland Motor Corporation and became British Leyland + . itself to be nationalised in 1975.
In September 2013 Jaguar Land Rover announced plans to open a 100 million GBP + (160 million USD + ) research and development centre in Warwick + . United Kingdom + to create a next generation of vehicle technologies. The carmaker said around 1,000 academics and engineers would work there and that construction would start in 2014.
Cash was short after World War II + . and Jaguar sold the plant and premises of Motor Panels, a pressed steel body manufacturing company they had acquired in the late 1930s when growth prospects seemed more secure. The buyer was Rubery Owen + . Nevertheless, Jaguar achieved relative commercial success with their early post war models; times were also tough for other Coventry-based auto-makers and the company was able to buy from John Black + ‘s Standard Motor Company + the plant where Standard had built the six-cylinder engines it had been supplying to Jaguar.
Jaguar made its name by producing a series of eye-catching sports cars, such as the XK 120 of 1949, developed into XK 140 and XK 150, and the E Type of 1961. These were all successful and embodied Lyons’ mantra of value for money. They were successful in international motorsport, a path followed in the 1950s to prove the engineering integrity of the company’s products.
Jaguar’s sales slogan for years was Grace, Space, Pace, a mantra epitomised by the record sales achieved by the MK VII, IX, Mks I and II saloons and later the XJ6.
The core of Bill Lyons’ success following WWII was the twin-cam straight six + engine, a design conceived pre-war and realised while design staff at the Coventry plant were dividing their time between fire-watching (Coventry being a prime target of German bombers) and designing the new power plant.
To place this in context, benchmark for pre-war racing and competition engines was the Double Knocker, or Twin Cam engine. Jaguar’s new engine was a hemispherical cross-flow cylinder head with valves inclined from the vertical; originally at 30 degrees (inlet) and 45 degrees (exhaust) and later standardised to 45 degrees for both inlet and exhaust.
As fuel octane + ratings were relatively low from 1948 onwards, three piston configuration were offered: domed (high octane), flat (medium octane), and dished (low octane).
The main designer, William Bill Heynes + . assisted by Walter Wally Hassan + . was determined to design the Twin OHC unit. Bill Lyons agreed over misgivings from Hassan. It was risky to take what had previously been considered a racing or low-volume and cantankerous engine needing constant fettling and applying it to reasonable volume production saloon cars.
The subsequent engine (in various versions) was the mainstay powerplant of Jaguar, used in the XK 120, Mk VII Saloon, Mk I and II Saloons and XK 140 and 150. It was also employed in the E Type, itself a development from the race winning and Le Mans conquering C and D Type Sports Racing cars refined as the short-lived XKSS, a road-legal D-Type.
Few engine types have demonstrated such ubiquity and longevity: Jaguar used the Twin OHC ”XK Engine”, as it came to be known, in the Jaguar XJ6 saloon from 1969 through 1992, and employed in a J60 variant as the power plant in such diverse vehicles as the British Army’s Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance (Tracked) + family of vehicles, as well as the Fox armoured reconnaissance vehicle + . the Ferret Scout Car + . and the Stonefield four-wheel-drive all-terrain lorry. Properly maintained, the standard production XK Engine would achieve 200,000 miles of useful life.
Two of the proudest moments in Jaguar’s long history in motor sport involved winning the Le Mans 24 hours race + . firstly in 1951 and again in 1953. Victory at the 1955 Le Mans was overshadowed by it being the occasion of the worst motorsport accident in history + . Later in the hands of the Scottish racing team Ecurie Ecosse two more wins were added in 1956 and 1957.
In spite of such a performance orientation, it was always Lyons’ intention to build the business by producing world-class sporting saloons in larger numbers than the sports car market could support. Jaguar secured financial stability and a reputation for excellence with a series of elegantly styled luxury saloons that included the 3 litre and 3½ litre cars, the Mark VII, VIII, and IX, the compact Mark I and 2, and the XJ6 and XJ12. All were deemed very good values, with comfortable rides, good handling, high performance, and great style.
Combined with the trend-setting XK 120, XK 140, and XK 150 series of sports car, and nonpareil E-Type, Jaguar’s Elan as a prestige motorcar manufacturer had few rivals. The company’s post-War achievements are remarkable, considering both the shortages that drove Britain (the Ministry of Supply + still allocated raw materials) and the state of metallurgical development of the era.
In 1951, Jaguar leased Browns Lane + from The Daimler Company Limited + . which quickly became its principal plant. Jaguar purchased Daimler—not to be confused with Daimler-Benz + or Daimler AG + —in 1960 from BSA + . From the late 1960s, Jaguar used the Daimler marque as a brand name for their most luxurious saloons.
Pressed Steel Company Limited + made all Jaguar’s (monocoque + ) bodies leaving provision and installation of the mechanicals to Jaguar. In mid-1965 British Motor Corporation + (BMC), the Austin + -Morris + combine, bought Pressed Steel. Alarmed by Jaguar’s relegation to the position of non-preferred customer by the maker of the largest part of its product Sir William Lyons elected to not fight BMC’s offer to buy Jaguar and BMC took control in September 1966.
In view of these significant acquisitions, Pressed Steel and Jaguar, BMC changed its name to British Motor Holdings + at the end of 1966.
BMH was pushed by the government to marry up with relatively well-managed prosperous Leyland Motor Corporation Limited, manufacturer of Leyland bus and truck + . Standard + -Triumph + and, since 1967, Rover + vehicles. The result was British Leyland + . a new holding company which appeared in 1968, but the combination was not a success. The continuing management and financial difficulties of, especially, the Austin-Morris division (previously BMC) led to the Ryder Report + and to effective nationalisation in 1975.
Over the next few years it became clear that because of the low regard for many of the group’s products insufficient capital could be provided to develop and begin manufacture of new models, including Jaguars, particularly if Jaguar were to remain a part of the group.
In July 1984, Jaguar was floated off as a separate company on the stock market – one of the Thatcher + government’s many privatisation + s– to create its own track record and find (new supplies or, the government’s preference,) a new supplier of capital —which turned out to be Ford.
Installed as chairman in 1980, Sir John Egan + was hailed as an industrial superman for Jaguar’s unprecedented prosperity immediately after privatisation. In early 1986 Egan reported he had tackled 1. poor quality control, 2. lagging delivery schedules, 3. poor productivity, and laid off about 1/3 of the company’s 10,000 employees to cut costs. Commentators have since pointed out he exploited an elderly model range on which all development costs had been written off and raised prices as well as intensifying the push to improve Jaguar’s quality but in the USA the price rises were masked by a favourable exchange rate.
Ford + made offers to Jaguar’s US and UK shareholders to buy their shares in November 1989; Jaguar’s listing on the London Stock Exchange + was removed on 28 February 1990. In 1999 it became part of Ford’s new Premier Automotive Group + along with Aston Martin + . Volvo Cars + and, from 2000, Land Rover + . Aston Martin was subsequently sold off in 2007. Under Ford’s ownership it never made a profit.
Under Ford’s ownership Jaguar expanded its range of products with the launch of the S-Type + in 1999 and X-type + in 2001. Since Land Rover’s May 2000 purchase by Ford, it has been closely associated with Jaguar. In many countries they share a common sales and distribution network (including shared dealerships), and some models now share components, although the only shared production facility was Halewood Body and Assembly + . for the X-Type and the Freelander 2. However operationally the two companies were effectively integrated under a common management structure within Ford’s PAG.
Before the sale was announced, Anthony Bamford + . chairman of British excavator manufacturer JCB + had expressed interest in purchasing the company in August 2006, but backed out upon learning that the sale would also involve Land Rover, which he did not wish to buy. On Christmas Eve of 2007, Mahindra and Mahindra backed out of the race for both brands, citing complexities in the deal.
On 1 January 2008, Ford formally declared that Tata was the preferred bidder. Tata Motors + also received endorsements from the Transport And General Worker’s Union (TGWU)-Amicus + combine + as well as from Ford. According to the rules of the auction process, this announcement would not automatically disqualify any other potential suitor.
However, Ford (as well as representatives of Unite + ) would now be able to enter into detailed discussions with Tata concerning issues ranging from labour concerns (job security and pensions), technology (IT systems and engine production) and intellectual property, as well as the final sale price. Ford would also open its books for a more comprehensive due diligence + by Tata. On 18 March 2008, Reuters + reported that American bankers Citigroup + and JP Morgan + would finance the deal with a USD 3 billion + loan.
On 26 March 2008, Ford announced that it had agreed to sell its Jaguar and Land Rover operations to Tata Motors of India, and that they expected to complete the sale by the end of the second quarter of 2008. Included in the deal were the rights to three other British brands, Jaguar’s own Daimler + . as well as two dormant brands Lanchester + and Rover + . On 2 June 2008, the sale to Tata was completed at a cost of £1.7 billion.
The Swallow Sidecar company (SSC) was originally located in Blackpool + but moved to Holbrook Lane, Coventry + in 1928 when demand for the Austin Swallow + became too great for the factory’s capacity. In 1951, having outgrown the original Coventry site they moved to Browns Lane, which had been a wartime shadow factory run by The Daimler Company + . Today, Jaguars are assembled at Castle Bromwich + in Birmingham. The historic Browns Lane plant + ceased trim and final operations in 2005, the X350 XJ + having already moved to Castle Bromwich two years prior, leaving the XK + and S-Type + production to Castle Bromwich
In 2000, Ford turned its Halewood + plant over to Jaguar following the discontinuation of its long running Escort + that year for Jaguar’s new X-Type + model. It was later joined by the second-generation Land Rover Freelander 2, from 2007. Jaguars ceased being produced at Halewood in 2009 following the discontinuation of the X-Type; Halewood now becoming a Land Rover-only plant.
A reduced Browns Lane site operates today, producing veneers for Jaguar Land Rover and others, as well as some engineering facilities. A new assembly plant was opened at Pune + . India + in April 2011.
Jaguar will begin producing the Jaguar XE + – the replacement for the X-Type – at Land Rover’s Solihull + plant in 2015, the first non-4×4 passenger car to be produced at the plant since the Rover SD1 + in the late 1970s.
The F-Type + convertible was launched at the 2012 Paris Motor Show + . following its display at the Goodwood Festival of Speed + in June 2012, and is billed as a successor to the legendary E-Type + . In fact, the Series III E-Type already had a successor, in the form of the XJS + . which was in turn replaced by the XK8 and XKR. The F-Type nevertheless returns to the 2-seat plan that was lost with the introduction of the Series III E-Type, which was available only in a 2+2-seat configuration.
It was developed following the positive reaction to Jaguar’s C-X16 concept car at the 2011 Frankfurt Auto Show. Sales will begin in 2013 with three engine choices; two variants of the AJ126 V6 petrol engine and the AJ133 V8 petrol engine.
The Jaguar XF + is a mid-size + executive car + introduced in 2008 to replace the S-Type + . In January 2008, the XF was awarded the ”What Car? + ” ‘Car of the Year’ and ‘Executive Car of the Year’ awards. The XF was also awarded Car of the Year 2008 from ”What Diesel?” magazine. Engines available in the XF are 2.2-litre I4 + and 3.0-litre V6 + diesel engines, or 3.0 litre V6 and 5.0-litre V8 + petrol engines.
The 5.0 Litre engine is available in supercharged form in the XFR. From 2011, the 2.2-litre diesel engine from the Land Rover Freelander was added to the range as part of a facelift.
The Jaguar XJ + is a full-size + luxury saloon. The model has been in production since 1968 with the first generation being the last Jaguar car to have creative input by the company’s founder, Sir William Lyons + . In early 2003, the third generation XJ arrived in showrooms and while the car’s exterior and interior styling were traditional in appearance, the car was completely re-engineered. Its styling attracted much criticism from many motoring journalists who claimed that the car looked old-fashioned and barely more modern than its predecessor, many even citing that the ‘Lyons line’ had been lost in the translation from Mark 2 into Mark 3 XJ, even though beneath the shell lay a highly advanced aluminium construction that put the XJ very near the top of its class.
Jaguar responded to the criticism with the introduction of the fourth generation XJ, launched in 2009. Its exterior styling is a departure from previous XJs, with a more youthful, contemporary stance, following the design shift that came into effect previously with the company’s XF + and XK + models.
The 5-litre V8 engine in the XJ Supersport can accelerate the car from emission rating of 289 g/km. To cater to the limousine market, all XJ models are offered with a longer wheelbase + (LWB) as an option, which increases the rear legroom.
The Jaguar XK + is a luxury grand tourer + introduced in 2006, where it replaced the XK8 + launched in 1996. The XK introduced an aluminium monocoque bodyshell, and is available both as a two-door coupé and two-door cabriolet + /convertible + .
Jaguar began producing R models in 1995 with the introduction of the first XJR. Powered by a supercharged 6-cylinder engine, the car produced approximately 322 horsepower. With the revamped line of engines, the powerplant would be based on an eight-cylinder engine with supercharger from 1997 to present. The 1997–2003 XJR produced and of torque, taking the car to in 5 seconds.
The new aluminium bodyshell from 2004 to 2009 and increased power to and enhanced computer systems decreased the time to to 4.8 seconds. Starting after year 2000, XJRs were equipped with Jaguar’s CATS (Computer Active Technology Suspension), which helped firm up the ride in sporty driving without compromising comfort during day-to-day use.
The first XKR was introduced in 1997 and kept with the same power increases as the XJR except for after 2006 the power in the XKR was boosted to. The S-Type R had a short production run from 2003 to 2008, and came equipped with the same supercharged V8 as the other R models. It was replaced by the XFR, featuring a 5.0 L supercharged V8 producing .
* Jaguar XJR
* Jaguar F-Type R coupé
After years of speculation, Jaguar designer Ian Callum + confirmed in early 2012 that there would not be a Jaguar SUV, but suggested that he may be designing a crossover for Jaguar. In 2013 Jaguar announced the C-X17 + concept.
A compact four-door saloon called XE + was announced at the 2014 Geneva Motor Show + with sales scheduled for 2015.
The Jaguar S-Type + . first appeared in 1999 and stopped production in 2008. It has now been replaced by the Jaguar XF. Early S-Types suffered from reliability problems but those were mostly resolved by the 2004 model year.
The Jaguar X-Type + was a compact executive car + launched in 2001, while the company was under Ford ownership. Sharing its platform with a 2000 Ford Mondeo + . the X-Type ceased production in 2009.
The Jaguar company started production with the pre-war 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5-litre models, which used engines designed by the Standard Motor Company + . The 1.5-litre four-cylinder engine was still supplied by Standard but the two larger six-cylinder ones were made in house. These cars have become known unofficially as Mark IVs + .
The first post-war model was the 1948 Mark V + available with either 2.5- or 3.5-litre engines, and it had a more streamlined appearance than pre-war models, but more important was the change to independent front suspension and hydraulic brakes.
Along with sports cars, Jaguar maintained a strong place in the upscale saloon car market. Introducing the large Mark VII in 1951, a car especially conceived for the American market, Jaguar was overwhelmed with orders. The Mark VII and its successors gathered rave reviews from magazines such as ”Road and Track + ” and ”The Motor” + . In 1956 a Mark VII won the prestigious Monte Carlo Rally + .
In 1955, the 2.4-Litre saloon (subsequently known as the 2.4 Mark 1 + ) was the first monocoque + (unitary) car from Jaguar. Its 2.4-litre short-stroke version of the XK engine provided performance. In 1957, the 3.4-litre version with disk brakes, wire wheels and other options was introduced, with a top speed of.
In 1959, an extensively revised version of the car with wider windows and 2.4, 3.4, and 3.8-litre engine options became the Mark 2 + . The 3.8 Mark 2 was popular with British police forces for its small size and performance.
The Mark VIII + of 1956 and Mark IX + of 1958 were essentially updates of the Mark VII, but the Mark X + of 1961 was a completely new design of large saloon with all round independent suspension and unitary construction.
The independent rear suspension from the Mark X was incorporated in the 1963 S-Type + . which closely resembled the Mark 2, and in 1967 the Mark 2 name was dropped when the small saloon became the 240/340 range. The 420 + of 1966, also sold as the Daimler Sovereign + . put a new front onto the S-type, although both cars continued in parallel until the S-Type was dropped in 1968. The Mark X became the 420G in 1966.
Of the more recent saloons, the most significant is the XJ + (1968–1992). From 1968 on, the Series I XJ saw minor changes, first in 1973 (to Series II), 1979 (Series III), a complete redesign for 1986/1987 in XJ40, further modifications in 1995 (X300), in 1997 with V8-power (X308), and a major advance in 2003 with an industry-first aluminium monocoque-chassis (X350). The most luxurious XJ models carried either the Vanden Plas + (US) or Daimler + (rest of world) nameplates.
In 1972, the 12-cylinder engine was introduced in the XJ, while simultaneously being offered in the E Type.
1992 saw the introduction of the mid-engined, twin-turbo XJ220 + . powered by a date=22 August 1992 |work=The Guardian |quote=On the Nardo track of southern Italy, Martin Brundle, the Grand Prix driver, confirmed it as the fastest production car with 217mph, narrowly quicker than the Bugatti. The Ferrari 512 or earlier F40 does around 200mph. The F40 boasts 0-60mph in 4.1 seconds.
The Lamborghini Diablo is 4.09 and Porsche 959, 3.9. The Jaguar rates 3.85.
Over the years many Jaguar models have sported the famous chrome plated Leaping Jaguar, traditionally forming part of the radiator cap. Known as The Leaper this iconic mascot has been the subject of controversy in recent times when banned for safety reasons from cars supplied to Europe whilst it continued to be fitted on cars destined for the United States, Middle East and Far East. It has now been dropped from all the latest Jaguar models.
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